Side Effects Caused by Metabolic Pathways
Social Anxiety Shyness Info
If you are currently taking some kind of medication for Social
Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia or if you are giving serious
thought to taking such medication or if you are looking for
information about the side effects caused by these medications,
then here you will find something that will surely meet your
needs. More specifically, I'm going to deal with the individual characteristics that could possibly contribute to any one of these medications producing undesirable effects.
Differences in individual metabolism can be the cause of serious
side effects from the medications used in the treatment of Social
Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia. The reasons for this are found
in the imperfection of the general biological system. If this
system were perfect, the reactions would be identical in all
living organisms. For example, if a medication is known to
relieve headaches, it should have the same effect in all
organisms. However, we know only too well that this is not always
the case. There are differences in biological systems and,
principally, differences in the metabolic subsets, also known as
metabolic pathways. Now, I'm going to explain what all of this
means, and then I'll describe how these pathways can be the cause
of side effects.
Metabolism and Metabolic Pathways
Various processes essential to life are bound together in an
integrated network of chemical reactions, known collectively as
metabolism. Let's make a comparison between what happens with you
now and your access to the Internet. In order for this text and
its associated images to appear on your computer screen right now,
a number of integrated processes are necessary. First, the text
needs to be written and/or designed according to certain criteria,
then it needs to pass through a sequence of processes that lead to
a device known as a server. Inside the server, predetermined
sequences take place so that the document is filed and available.
When you accessed the Internet, other procedures were executed,
and to access my server and receive this document, another set of
processes was followed. Yet another sequence occurred so that my
server would release the content to you and, finally, other
processes so that the document would appear on your screen. All of
this needs to function correctly and in an integrated manner for
the text and its images to reach you in the way that I had
conceived and executed them. It works the same way in organisms,
be they vegetable or animal: many chemical and physical processes
work in a coordinated and integrated manner, transforming
molecules and producing energy to sustain life. For this reason,
they are called biochemical processes. The total series of
transformations (chemical reactions) is known as metabolism, and
the parts of the series, much like the parts of the processes you
needed to access this document through the Internet, are called metabolic
you a better idea, consider that in a single cell
more than one
thousand integrated chemical reactions take place. Now, imagine the
integration of trillions of cells that make up an organism! Complicated,
isn't it? However, there are some interesting short cuts: the sequences of
reactions are repeated in various parts of the organism. In other words,
the number of reactions in metabolism is very large but, owing to
repetition, the number of reaction types is relatively small.
For example, we know that a group of close to one hundred molecules plays
a central role in all forms of life. Among these molecules is adenosine
triphosphate, known as ATP. Now, ATP is a type of universal currency for
energy and as one of its characteristics, it has to be rich in energy and
quickly release the energy it carries. By reading this text, your organism
used energy that was released through ATP. Following this release, it is
transformed into adenosine diphosphate, ADP. The ADP then adds a phosphate
ion and changes back to ATP and, once again, energy is available. This
is, I repeat, a quick way for your organism to release the energy you are
using to read this text. Within each one of your cells involved in this
process, the transformation of ATP to ADP and ADP to ATP is taking place
each and every minute.
However, to change ATP to ADP and vice versa, not to mention the thousands
of other reactions, the cell needs intermediary molecules known as
enzymes. We say that enzymes are catalyzers because they facilitate or
make the reactions possible.
Every substance that enters the organism is submitted to a sequence of
reactions according to its chemical and physical characteristics. These
reactions are grouped together in sets and subsets of reagents. The role
of each set or subset, also called metabolic pathways, and of metabolism
as a whole, is to maintain life. Among the organism's reagents that
compose each set or subset, we find enzymes.
In the case of medications used in the treatment of Social Anxiety
Disorder / Social Phobia, we now introduce metabolic pathways in which
enzymes known by the generic name of Cytochrome-P450 participate. More
specifically, they are known as pathways in the Cytochrome P-450 system.
Other medications are also metabolized in this system. On the other hand,
it can be observed that there are differences in these enzymes from one
organism to another. This means that there are differences in metabolism
from one organism to another. This is the key to the appearance of many
health problems as well as for the cure of many maladies.
Differences in Metabolism
Differences in the number of enzymes found in the metabolic
pathways are responsible for the fact that a given medication,
whatever it may be, does not produce the expected effect in some
people and/or produces side effects. In the case of medications
used in Social Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobias, and of others,
we can anticipate four scenarios:
-- The metabolic process takes place within the expected, predicted time.
This means, for example, that a "normal" quantity of enzymes involved in
the metabolizing of the medication is present. It can then be expected
that the medication will produce the desired benefits in the individual
with few or no side effects.
-- The metabolic process is very fast. This means that the number of
enzymes involved in the metabolizing of the medication is above "normal"
and, therefore, the medication is metabolized quickly without producing
the desired effect in the individual or, for that matter, any side effects.
-- The metabolic process is slower than "normal." This can cause the
specific medication and/or its by-products (intermediate products in the
metabolic process) to accumulate in the organism, delaying the time of
action and producing undesirable side effects.
-- The metabolic process does not take place at a certain stage of the
process, which leads the medication or some of its by-products to
accumulate in the organism, reaching toxic levels, damaging organs or
systems, and even causing death over the long, medium, or short term.
All medications that pass through the same metabolic sets can produce these
response patterns. Fortunately, nowadays, it is becoming possible to
anticipate what will happen to the organism if a person takes certain
kinds of medications, including those used in the treatment of Social
Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia, through appropriate blood examinations.
We will take a closer look at this subject in other article, which will
also include a discussion of genetic factors that increase or decrease the
number of enzymes in these metabolic pathways.
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Ruy Miranda and you, and they do not replace the eventual
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